This is a quick WASSCE History lesson on the achievements of Pharaonic Egypt.
Note that every point is summarized for your easy revision.
You will have to expand the points on the achievements of Pharaonic Egypt into complete sentences and paragraphs for an acceptable WASSCE History essay.
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The questions that shall form our point of reference are:
OUTLINE THE MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS OF PHARAONIC EGYPT.
DESCRIBE THE CONTRIBUTION OF PHARAONIC EGYPT TO WORLD CIVILIZATION
Pharaonic Egypt refers to the period in the history of Egypt when she was ruled by the Pharaohs.
STATE AND EXPLAIN CONTRIBUTIONS/ACHIEVEMENTS
– The mainstay of Egyptian civilization
– Use of irrigation i.e. “shaduf” to cultivate large areas of farmiand
– She was self – sufficient in food supply and exported some to the Levant, Cyprus
2. Metal technology
– Copper melting, ship building (some about 30m long and carrying 80tons of cargo)
– The facilitated trade with the Levant, Cyprus etc.
– Advances in medicine – manufacturers of drugs, surgery and mummification of dead bodies
4. Engineering technology
– Built great pyramids as royal burial tombs e.g. the greatest was built by the Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops) in 2600BC. According to Herodotus, 120, 000 workmen took 30years to build it at Gaza.
5. The art of writing and literature
– Made a yearly calendar of 365days, used water sundials to divide the day into 24hours.
– Hieroglyphics – sacred characters inscribed on stones
– Hieratic – shorthand writing used by priests
– Demotic – faster form of writing
-Manufacturers of paper from papyrus reeds.
– Centralized government
– Complex bureaucracy
– Divine kingship e.g. the Pharaoh performed political and religious functions, there was a prime minister (vizier) responsible for secular matters, 42 districts headed by governors.
– Polytheism (ReHather, lsis, etc)
– Belief in life after death
– Worship of the Pharaoh (god in disguise of man)
8. Art and painting
– Carved objects, statutes (wood stone, metal).
These practices and achievements were replicated in other parts of the world.
– Africa, Balkans, Rome, Western Europeans etc.
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