Read the following passage carefully and answer in your own words, as far as possible, the questions that follow.
There were certain underlying conditions that enabled department stores grow up when they did. From the start, they all catered for middle-class customers and set out to convey to them an air of luxury and solid comfort. Of necessity, they all arose in central positions where large numbers of people could reach them easily by means of public transport. Physically, they grew up in an era of big technical developments in building so that they could afford multi-storey palaces and could have enormous plate-glass windows for display, lighting and novelties like lifts.
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Above all, the department stores rose with the rise of Victorian white-collar workers, the small-scale businessmen and professionals whose womenfolk had money to spare for a few luxuries and were gradually switching the emphasis of their housekeeping expenditure from food to other items.
Most of these stores drew enough customers to fill their huge shops by offering two new things. One was the new manufactures, particularly clothing, goods and accessories, household furnishings and equipment of all kinds that were coming out of the factories in increasing quantity. The specialist shops stocked these too, of course, but the department stores always made it a point to be the first in the field if they could with novelty of any kind. And the other special thing they offered the middle-class shoppers, many of whom were newly rich and a little experienced in luxury shopping, was a lavish display and wide choice of these goods.
The department stores, however, introduced into a respectable class trade the vulgar practice of openly marking or ticketing goods with their prices – a practice that had not even yet penetrated shops that could claim that they were really exclusive. But the department stores as a rule made a virtue not only of displaying their wares as openly as they could but also of boldly pricing them for all to see. Their large-scale purchases enabled them to sell cheaply and they were not ashamed in the early days to make price one of their selling points. ‘Store price’ was a by-word for cheapness.
The lines they concentrated on were fashion goods, things that shoppers were prepared to travel long distances for and to take some time and trouble in choosing. The department stores were at least partly responsible for the way the middle classes gradually became fashion conscious, and helped to mould their tastes. They were the first preachers of the modern creed that goods ought to be replaced when they are outdated rather than when they are outworn.
WASSCE Summary Questions
a) In four sentences, one for each, summarize why people were attracted to the department stores.
b) In two sentences, one for each, state the effects department stores had on their customers.
Recommended WASSCE Summary Answers
a) i) They were the first to sell the latest goods.
ii) They offered different kinds of goods.
iii) They openly displayed their prices.
iv) Their prices were low.
b) i) They turned their customers into lovers of fashion.
ii) They shaped their customers’ tastes.
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions on it.
Despite the fact that our planet is habitable only because most of it is composed of water, it is the oceans that are the most immediately threatened part of the earth.
It was in the oceans that life first began to stir, shielded by the waters from the sun’s irresistible radiation. It was from the oceans that planets and animals emerged to colonize the land surface of the planet. It is the oceans today that provide the water vapour which, drawn up by the sun, fall upon the earth in harvest-bringing, life- sustaining rain. The ocean is a major provider of the oxygen released by its plankton for the benefit of all the species of land, air and sea – breathing with lungs and gills.
Without special qualities for holding heat, much of the earth would be uninhabitable.
The oceans are the coolants of the tropics, the bringers of warm currents to cold regions, the universal moderators of temperature throughout the globe.
The oceans are also indispensable to man because they first created the world-wide currents of sea-borne trade which have steadily drawn our planet into a single economic system. They still produce protein. In 1996, sixty-three million metric tons of fish came from the sea, estimated to be approximately one-fifth of the ocean’s production.
Fish, if turned directly to human use, could make up a large part of the protein diet required for the words children, especially those in developing countries, at a vary low cost. But, in one of the world economy’s most unacceptable diversions of resources, fifty percent of the harvest from the oceans is converted to fish meal which today ends up feeding pigs and chickens in developed countries. It is very sad that ‘developed’ animal pets have the chance of a better diet than very many ‘developing’ babies.
a) In five sentences, one for each, state the reasons why, according to the author, man needs the oceans.
b) In one sentence, summarize how man misuses the ocean’s resources.
a) i. The oceans produce rainfall for food production.
ii. They are a source of oxygen without which life is impossible.
iii. The oceans regulate world temperature so that living organisms get just what they need to live.
iv. They serve as a means of transport hence facilitating international trade.
v. The oceans are a major source of protein.
b) Fish from the oceans are being exploited to feed animals instead of conserving them for human consumption.
Read the following passage carefully and answer in your own words as far as possible, the questions that follow.
It has been the custom of historians to divide the factors for wars into immediate and underlying causes. Among these underlying causes, the economic factor is generally placed at the head of the list. Indeed , the most important of these was the industrial and commercial rivalry between Germany and Great Britain.
Germany, after its unification in 1871, went through a period of economic miracle. By 1914, she was producing more iron and steel than Britain and France combined. In chemicals, in dye, and in the manufacture of scientific equipment she led the world. The products of her industries were crowding British manufactures in nearly every market for continental Europe, in the Far East and in Britain itself.
There is evidence that certain interests in Great Britain were becoming seriously alarmed over the menace of Germany competition.
There seemed to be a strong conviction that Germany was waging deliberate and deadly economic warfare upon Britain to capture her market by unfair methods. Thus, for Britain to allow Germany to be victorious in this struggle would mean the destruction of her prosperity and a grave threat to her national existence.
There are indications that the French also were alarmed by the German industrial expansion. In 1870, France had lost possession of the expensive iron and coal deposit of Lorraine, which had gone to swell the industrial growth of Germany. To be sure, the French had plenty of iron left in the Briery Fields, but they were afraid that their enemy might eventually reach out and grab these too. Besides, France was under necessity of importing coal and this galled her pride almost as much as the loss of the iron.
In addition, the Russian ambition to gain control of Constantinople and other portions of Turkish territory conflicted with German plans for reserving the Turkish Empire as their happy hunting ground of commercial privilege. Then Russia and Austria a close ally of Germany were rivals for a monopoly of trade with the Balkan kingdoms of Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria and Greece.
- In two sentences, one for each, state two reasons why Britain considered Germany a threat.
- In two sentences, one for each, state two reasons why the French felt threatened by the Germans.
- In two sentences, one for each, state two factors responsible for Russian antagonism with Germany.
a) i. Germany’s production level started rising higher than Britain’s
ii. Britain was finding it difficult to cope with German commercial competition.
b) i. Germany had taken over much of France’s iron and coal resources.
ii. There was the danger that Germany might take over the rest of France’s ail and coal resources.
c) i. There was a scramble for the control of the Turkish Empire by the two countries.
ii. Germany’s ally, Austria, was engaged in a bitter struggle with Russia over who gained control over trade in the Balkans.
Read the passage below carefully and then answer in your own words as far as possible the questions on it.
Mining ranks among the world’s most destructive industries. Yet mineral extraction and processing are absent in most discussions of global environmental threats. Governmental and private analyses have focused only on increasing mineral supplies.
Each year, mining strips some 28 billon tons of material from the earth. This is more than what is removed by the natural erosion of all the earth’s rivers. Worldwide, mining and smelting generate an estimated 2.7 billon tons of processing waste each year, much of it hazardous dwarfing the more familiar municipal waste. Smelter pollution has created biological waste lands as large as 10, 000 hectares and pumped some eight percent of the total worldwide emissions of sulphur dioxide, a major contributor to acid rain, into the atmosphere.
Mining could also cause more damaging deforestation than bad farming practices in certain parts of the world. For example, smelters at a single iron mine in Brazil will require enough fuelwood to deforest 50,000 hectares of tropical forest each year.
Mining has been poorly regulated even in wealthy industrialized nations. While many governments subsidize mineral production, few enact or enforce strict environmental regulations for mining operations. As a result, not only are many mining activities more environmentally destructive than need be, but prices of minerals do not include their full environmental cost. Today’s low mineral prices reflect only the immediate economics of extraction and destruction. They fail to consider the full costs of eroded land, dammed or polluted rivers and displacement of people unlucky enough to live atop mineral deposits. In the light of this, governments should remove subsidies provided for mining virgin mineral.
The devastating effects of the industry are particularly severe in the developing countries which have been producing a substantial portion of the world’s mineral supplies, although they use relatively little. This is because environmental controls tend to be weak or non-existent in these countries. What makes their situation more pathetic is that many of them are among the world’s poorest nations.
Contrary to popular belief, the people of most mineral – exporting countries gain little from mining. Expensive investment in equipment and infrastructure combined with falling world mineral prices, especially during the eighties, has made these countries some of the world’s most heavily indebted.
While the world appears in little danger of running out of most non-fuel minerals, it is obvious that the planet cannot afford the human and ecological price of its growing appetite for minerals. It will therefore be wise to satisfy human needs with smaller amounts of virgin minerals. It will also work for our good if we increase recycling of materials, and made metal-based products more durable and easier to repair.
a) In three sentences, one for each, state three reasons given by the writer to support his view that mining is a destructive industry.
b) In one sentence, state one effect of the poor regulation of mining operations.
c) In two sentences, one for each, state two suggestions made by the writer towards reducing the destructive effects of mining activities.
a) i. It causes erosion.
ii. It leads to environmental pollution.
iii. It encourages desertification.
b) Poor regulation of mining activities causes unnecessary damage to the environment.
c) i. Lesser amounts of mineral products should be consumed.
ii. Recycling of used products should be stepped up.
No. one can seriously pretend to remain unaffected by advertisement. It is impossible to turn a blind eye to the solicitors to by this or that article that fill our streets, newspapers and magazines. Even in the sanctuary of our living rooms, advertisers are waiting to pounce on their helpless victims as they tune to their favourite radio or television programmes. In time, no matter how hard we resist, clever little tunes and catch phrases seep into our subconscious minds and stay there. Though they seem so varied, all these advertisements have one thing in common: they make strong appeals to our emotions.
Fear is the biggest weapon of all. The consumer is literally scared into spending his money when he is reminded that he may die tomorrow and leave his family unprovided for; his house may be burnt down while he is away on holiday; that mysterious pain he has in his stomach (which he innocently took to be indigestion) is really the first symptom of a serious nervous disorder. The bait dangled before his nose is security, and he is gripped with fear when he compares his miserable lot with that of the smiling, healthy looking man in the advertisement, who was provident enough to do all the right things at the right times.
But we are not always dealt with so roughly. Sometimes, it is not our fears that are invoked, but our sense of comfort. Human ingenuity devised countless machines that take the drudgery out of our house work. All you need to do is press a button.
The softest spot of all is our vanity. No man wants the bald before he is thirty; no woman wants to lose her school-girl complexion.
We are flattered and coaxed until we almost believe that we have the makings of potential film stars, provided of course, that we use X or Y.
Sometimes the methods employed are even more subtle. They persuade us that we are superior to other people and it is time we realized it. The funny man in the poster established immediate contact with us by making us feel that we belong to the select few who have a sense of humor. Austere black type and profoundly serious statements confirm what we knew all along that we are highly intelligent.
No amount of logical argument can convince so much as this assault on our emotions. When a crunchy, honey-filled chocolate bar stares up at you from a page, what else can you do but rush and buy one?
a) In one sentence state the main characteristic of advertisement.
b) In the first paragraph, the writer says something unpleasant about advertising. Summarize this in one sentence.
c) In one sentence, state which senses advertising takes advantage of.
d) In two sentences, one for each, state the materials and techniques used in advertising.
a) Advertisements attract everybody’s attention by working on their feelings.
b) Advertising invades the individual’s privacy without warning
c) It takes advantage of the senses of fear, comfort, vanity, humour and taste.
d) i. Materials such as newspapers, magazines, radio and television are used in advertising.
ii. Attractive pictures, catchy phrases and music are techniques used to appeal to a person’s emotions.
Read the passage below carefully and then answer, in your own words as far as passable, the questions on it
The world’s universities are bursting at their seams: every faculty has recently had to close its doors to hundreds of heartbroken applicants. Archaeology is no exception; and that is as it should be, for without this discipline, the world would have been deprived of every useful bit of knowledge. One shudders at how badly off the world would have been for the lack of such useful knowledge.
For instance, last Friday, 13th of August, every news bulletin carried the item of a most exhilarating archaeological find, nine-thousand-year old fossils dug up from 15 miles below the earth’s surface has revealed that in pre-historic times teenagers chewed gum. The experts knew that the teeth of fossil definitely belonged to a teenager because, although they were not as developed as a fully grown adult’s they were much stronger then a child’s would have been. The gum has been solidified from sap from a birch tree and must have been sweetened with honey with mint leaf added for flavor.
Further research was promised to determine whether chewing gum was medicinal. The suspicion was that if it was otherwise why would a teenager in the bloom of youthful exuberance lie dead with his gum securely wedged between his molars? Research would also establish whether the pre-historic teenager chewed his gum until all its sweetness ran out and whether he did so with relish.
The excavation and its attendant analyses has so far cost 18 billion American dollars, the newscaster said, a further 10 billion has been allocated to the Archaeological consortium to resolve the questions that puzzled scientists, historians and sociologists – indeed the whole of the academic world.
Anum chewed his lower lip as he gazed at the pre-set radio that was excitedly blasting the details. Being a typical Third world county bumpkin with no breeding in aesthetics, he mused upon how very grateful his debt ridden motherland would be if these billions were to be given her to pay some of her foreign debts. But that is to be expected, because Anum is too philistine to pay compliments where compliments are due.
The mothers of the women’s union were more cultured in their views. They would be grateful if a little more money is added to the allocation to enable the archaeologists to tell them whether the mothers of the Stone Age era approved of their teenager children cheerily chewing their pre-historic chewing gum.
a) In a single sentence, use three adjectives that describe pre-historic chewing gum.
b) In one sentence, state the general usefulness of archaeology.
c) In three sentences, one for each, list the points that further research should clarify about pre-historic chewing gum.
d) In one sentence, contrast Anum’s attitude with that of the archaeologists.
(a) It was hard, sugary and tasty
(b) It creates an avenue for learning about and understanding the past
(c) (i) It was to establish if chewing gum had some healing properties
(ii) It was to find out if the chewing gum was chewed until it lost its sweetness
(ii) Further research should clarify whether the teenagers enjoyed chewing it.
d) Whilst Anum considers archaeological research as a waste of scare resources, the archaeologists appear to attach great importance to their work.
Let us take a sober look at one of the many ancient virtues that Sunday school teachers used to make us believe will take us to heaven. Sister Victoria preached temperance. Sister said that everything was good for our souls provided it was done with temperance, many of my classmates loved the word temperance, because as Sophia used to say, “The word came tripping off our tongues and made us sound learned”.
Modern scientists have gone through tons of research material and have come full circle to conclude that, if we want to live safe and sound, we should do everything with moderation. Science says that sleep is a tonic for our bodies; provided the habit is not over-indulged in. Six hours of sleep each night will make us grow old before our time.
Heart surgeons tell us that gentle daily exercise protects us from heart attacks; that irregular outburst of vigorous exercise will kill us in no time.
Beauticians warn us that occasional smiling relaxes the muscles of the face, but that persistent grinning from ear to ear disturbs the smoothness of the face and makes us wrinkle up and look old before our time.
The conclusions of both religion and science merge into a single lesson that for anything to give us its full advantages it should be done with lukewarm indifference. Tony is not all sure that he likes temperance for the welfare of his soul, nor for the good of his body. His main consolation is that his two colleagues, Boat and Akua also dislike indifference.
Tony’s elder sister Emerald, has warned him that it is immature to divide the world into only blacks and whites, Emerald endorses the Biblical and scientific view that most of our world is really created in some indistinct insipid grey all the same.
Tony has promised that he may accept uninteresting moderation when he has one foot in the grave. Right now, however, he means to discover the joys of living dangerously.
a) In not more than eight words, find a suitable title for this passage. Do not use the words temperance and moderation. Your answer does not have to be a sentence.
b) In one sentence, state the main advantage of the virtues.
c) In three short sentences, summarize the specific recommendations of science.
d) In one sentence, state the difference between temperance and moderation.
(a) AVOID EXCESSES TO ENJOY A LONGER LIFE.
(b) One can enjoy a happier and longer life.
(c) (i) Sleep should be restricted to very few hours.
(ii) A little exercise a day is all that the body needs.
(ii) Only short spells of smiling are good for the face.
(d) Whilst temperance enriches one spiritually, moderation ensures one’s physical health
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Read the following passage carefully and answer in your own words, as far as possible, the questions on it.
One perennial problem which school authorities have to grapple with is indiscipline. In some schools, acts of gross indiscipline are indulged in on a daily basis. Despite this, corporal punishment which was used to curb this in the past has been banned by the education authorities. Indiscipline has led to chaos and upheavals in many cases. This accounts for the poor academic performance of some schools. Sometimes, the student’s future is ruined as he leaves school prematurely, becoming a burden on his family and a potential threat to the society.
The causes of indiscipline in schools can, in the first place be traced to the family background of the student. Charity is said to begin at home. Family upbringing is the foundation of the child’s character. The moral fiber and behavior of an individual speak volumes about the type of training given him at home. Take insubordination for example. It can be traced to pampering and over-indulging of the child at home by the parents. Children from such a background find it difficult to obey simple school regulations. They cannot bear the control that contrasts with the permissiveness experienced at home.
Another form of indiscipline which has defied solution is examination malpractice. This is often blamed on the dishonesty of the individual, but the real problem is the family’s failure to inculcate in the child the virtues and benefits of hard work. Students who indulge in such acts often see those around them succeeding through fraudulent means so they try to follow suit. The larger society must also take some of he blame because it condones such fraudulent acts. The habit of worshipping the rich, regardless of the questionable sources of the wealth of some of the, makes the young develop the end justifies the means attitude. They would therefore not devote their time to their studies but sit by and seek and employ all means to pass their examinations.
It cannot be denied that indiscipline in schools has far-reaching consequences for society at large. The school brings up most of our leaders. So the corrupt and dishonest leaders of tomorrow are the student who cheat in examinations and wantonly break school regulations today. It is therefore important to curb the spate of indiscipline in our schools.
The solution will not come easily but a measure of success can be achieved if counseling sessions are held regularly for students and students are taught how to invest their energies in profitable ventures. Concerted efforts should be made to build strong family values which can assist the child to imbibe the cherished virtues of society. Consequently, leaders, whether political, religious, business or community must hold themselves up as models for students. Those who indulge in acts of indiscipline, whether students or adults must be severely dealt with to serve as a deterrent to others. Parents and guardians should be interested not only in their wards’ academic progress, but also closely monitor their social life at home and in school by paying regular visits to the school.
a) In two sentences, one for each, state two ways in which the family contributes to indiscipline in children.
b) In one sentence, state one way in which society contributes to indiscipline in children
c) In three sentences, one for each, state the remedies suggested by the writer in curbing indiscipline.
a) i)Some families pamper their children.
ii) Some do not instill the value of hard work in their children.
b) Society tends to encourage dishonesty.
c) i) Students need to be counseled.
ii) Strong family values must be inculcated in children.
iii) Wrongdoers must be severely sanctioned.
Read the following passage carefully and answer in your own words, as far as possible, the questions on it.
One thing which distinguishes the world of entertainment as unique is its worldwide appeal and the fact that it provides a glamorous means of living for countless numbers of people. People of all walks of life, of all ages and from all parts of the world, hold similar views about entertainment. Top entertainers have performed before kings, queens and other dignitaries.
Entertainment comes to us in different forms – recitals, narrations, songs, drama and dance. These are meant to please people, make them feel happy and sometimes instruct them. Audiences are particularly thrilled by the antics and acrobatic displays that well-trained entertainers put up on stage. Apart from performing in shows before packed audiences in the country’s stadia in commemoration of Independence Day and other important historical events.
Entertainment, it is true, has a natural quality of attracting people away from their workplaces and making them unburden their minds and hearts in uncontrollable laughter. This is why it is often said that entertainment can improve the health of those weighted down by depression. Indeed, it has other therapeutic effects.
One often observes people from all walks of life showing deep interest in entertainment. It is heart-warming that through entertainment, people from different backgrounds sink their differences and share the thrills together. Keats says, A thing of beauty is a joy forever. I have never seen any group of people frown on enjoyment; the pleasures of life know no bounds.
However, the darker side of the world of entertainment presents an appalling picture. Sometimes, people who are gullible, copy undesirable traits and ways of popular artistes and practice them. Others indulge in criminal and anti-social activities. Newspapers present horrible reports of popular entertainers who have indulged in various immoral practices such as trading in drugs and even becoming drug pushers. And there are others who drive carelessly under the influence of alcohol and perish in untimely deaths. It is, indeed, sad that some of these people lead irresponsible lives thus casting a slur on the image of the entertainment industry.
Some great entertainers have, without doubt, tarnished their reputation and disappointed their followers while attracting criticism from the general public. To say the least, entertainment has ruined many lives. Once, an audience that was worked to a high pitch of excitement made a rush for the stage, killing a lot of people in the ensuing stampede.
Very few people will dispute the fact that entertainers have exercised negative influences on the characters of the youth who have imbibed their ideas. Once such wrong ideas get imprinted on their young minds, it becomes next to impossible to get rid of them. It would therefore be more beneficial if we were selective in what we watched by way of entertainment. In this way, the entertainment industry would be helped to grow and made to serve the nation better
a) In three sentences, one for each, state the advantages of entertainment.
b) In two sentences, one for each, state the arguments that critics advance against entertainment.
c) In one sentence, state how people can get maximum benefit from entertainment.
a) i)It provides employment for many. (OR: It is a source of income for many people.)
ii) Entertainment has health benefits.
iii) It unites people.
b) i) It can provide bad role models for the youth.
ii) Entertainment has destroyed many lives.
c) People must choose their form of entertainment wisely. (OR: People must be careful in choosing their type of entertainment.)
Read the following passage carefully and answer in your own words, as far as possible, the questions on it.
A woman’s health is critical to the economic and social well-being of her family, community ad country. The health of a pregnant woman is even more special because she needs access to health services to save her from death resulting from complications relating to childbirth, which are best treated by the obstetrician specialist. That is why maternal health has been given a central place on the millennium Development Goals launched recently.
Twenty years of research and pilot interventions have shown that complications due to pregnancy which might lead to death come in various forms. In deprived areas of the country, pregnant women tend to suffer from malnutrition. Not enough variety of food is available to them. They eat foods lacking in the rich nutrients needed by both mother and child to stay healthy. In the absence of a balanced diet, malnutrition and anemia set in. The expectant mother is unlikely to survive without medical intervention.
Sometimes, mother and unborn child may look healthy as long as the pregnancy lasts. Soon the mother feels she is in labour but this may be false. Without a professional attendant to confirm labour, she may be forced to push out the baby prematurely and cause fatal damage to herself and the baby.
Now that in many countries the law permits women to abort unwanted babies, some pregnant women take advantage of this law. Sometimes also, certain medical conditions may compel an obstetrician to abort a baby in order to save the mother. Such abortions are considered safe, but the unsafe ones are those that are carried out by mother alone, with help from some unapproved potions or quack doctors. The newspapers often narrate sorrowful tales of mothers who die by causing abortion. An alcoholic mother exposes her unborn baby to great danger. This is so because this baby is not spared the damaging effect of the alcohol the mother takes. It may suffer irreparable brain damage. At the time of delivery, therefore, the expectant mother may find herself delivered of a stillborn baby.
Poverty alleviation programmes should be initiated by governments particularly for women in rural areas. Such programmes should include the need to create not only an awareness of good nutrition during pregnancy but also a direct intervention with the supply of a wide variety of nutritious foods.
In many regional and district hospitals, there are ante natal clinics where pregnant women are attended to by qualified public health midwives. These professionals should counsel pregnant women on maternal health care including the dangers of abortion.
Pregnant women who do not avail themselves of the facilities of ante natal clinics put themselves at risk. District assemblies must provide resources for health professionals to visit pregnant women in their villages and homes and educate them on the real signs of labour. In addition, teenage girls and uninformed women should be counseled.
Pregnant women should also be targeted by organizations that fight alcoholism. The damage this addiction can cause is enormous and pregnant women are vulnerable. They must be encouraged to say no to alcohol.
a) In three sentences, one for each, state the causes of maternal mortality
b) In three sentences, one for each, state the measures that must be taken to prevent maternal mortality
a) i) Poor diet is one cause of maternal mortality.
ii) It sometimes results from lack of professional midwives.
iii) Unsafe abortion also causes maternal mortality.
b) i) Government must implement poverty reduction programmes.
ii) Trained midwives should educate pregnant women on maternal health.
iii) Pregnant women must avoid taking alcohol.
Our land is blessed with many rich mineral resources – gold, diamond, bauxite, manganese and oil. Mining, therefore, contributes immensely to the national income. Communities from where these resources are derived should not be adversely affected by their extraction. Unfortunately, that appears to be the lot of many mining communities in the country which now face poverty, deprivation and squalor as a result of the extraction processes.
The typical scene that confronts any visitor to a mining settlement
is the affluence of the mining executives and the squalor of the communities in which those mineral resources are located. The many years of neglect of the communities by the mining companies has brought about environmental degradation and health hazards for the people. The concerns of the mining communities were recently articulated by the President of the country when he received a delegation from a mining company. He said that he appreciated what they had done so far and appealed to them to do more to enhance the development of the local communities. There is no doubt that mining companies have built clinics and schools, made some donations and provided electricity. As of now, the mining sector has employed some people and contributes about 30% of the national export revenue. That notwithstanding, considering the wealth generated from the extraction of mineral resources, it is quite clear that the mining companies have relegated the welfare of the people to the periphery of their activities.
A recent study has indicated that most of the people affected by mining operations are not satisfied with their compensation packages. Compensation should cover not only the payment of cash but also land allocation for farming activities and financial aid. The message to the mining companies is simple: they should do more than they have done so far. They should initiate programmes which can minimize the environmental hazards caused by their activities and ensure that the people benefit from their operations.
A piece of welcome news would be the establishment of a mining fund devoted to the development of the mining communities. In addition, the mining laws should be critically re-examined. Those that deal with the payment of compensation for land, crops and buildings should protect the interest of the people. For instance, the percentage of mineral revenue paid as royalty should be adjusted upwards.
While attention is being focused on the broad legal framework guiding mining operations, the government should take steps to see that these recommendations are implemented. There should be joint efforts between the players in the mining sector and the government to find lasting solutions to the plight of the mining communities.
a) In two sentences, summarize the benefits derived from the mining industry
b) In one sentence, summarize the negative effect of mining on the environment.
c) In three sentences, summarize how the mining industry can be made more beneficial to the local community and the nation
a) i) It generates revenue for the state.
ii) Mining has created job opportunities.
b) Mining has damaged the environment.
c) i) There should be a development fund for mining areas.
ii) Mining laws should be made more effective.
iii) Government must ensure that mining policies are implemented.
Read the following passage carefully and answer in your own words, as far as possible, the questions that follow.
It is clear that before 1880 the three main agents of British government, traders, and evangelists – were generally agreed that territorial expansion in Africa was neither desirable nor necessary. It is therefore not surprising that by 1880 Britain’s colonial possessions in Africa were very few. Within the next twenty years, however, all the European nations abandoned their opposition to colonialism and became engaged in a mad rush for colonies in Africa.
The change of attitude towards colonies was the outcome of several factors. The first was the spread of the industrial revolution. Other European nations besides Britain had made rapid progress and were beginning to challenge Britain’s economic leadership. Soon the industrialized nations began to accumulate surplus manufactures because each was unwilling to allow the others goods to enter its market without any check. This policy, known as ‘protectionism’, was aimed at assisting domestic industry to grow by controlling the home market for the benefit of local manufactures.
The solution to the problems of surplus manufactures in Europe seemed to lie in the acquisition of markets outside Europe through colonialism. In England Frederick Lugard launched a campaign in favour of colonies as a solution to the crisis of markets. His ideas appealed to Lord Salisbury, British prime minister from 1885 to 1892. In France the prime minister, Jules Ferry, urged his countrymen in 1884 to embark upon colonization which he considered to be ‘a necessity like the “market” itself’.
Closely linked with the question of markets was the issue of raw materials. British and Belgian industries for example had a great need for cotton and rubber. The former played a key role in the British occupation of Egypt in 1882 and the latter in the adventures of king Leopold II (1835 – 1909) in the Congo (Zaire).
The third factor that played a role in the partition of Africa was the desire to find an outlet for surplus capital. From the middle of the nineteenth century European capitalists began to look for opportunities to invest their surplus capital in overseas countries. Jules Ferry believed that colonies were ‘for rich countries one of the most lucrative methods of investing capital….’
The search for national glory also played a role in the partition of Africa. The second half of the nineteenth century was the era of European nationalism. It was the period that saw Germany and Italy emerge as nation-states. France having lost Alsace-Lorraine to Germany in 1871, wanted to secure colonies in Africa to compensate for her loss and restore her national honour. Indeed, a French scholar argued in 1882 that France must become an African power or risk becoming a second-rate European power in the next century.
The sense of racial superiority felt by Europeans also made them want to export their culture and civilization to Africa. They used their self imposed civilizing mission’ as a powerful argument in support of their colonial ambitions. At the Brussels conference of 1876 the Belgian King, Leopold II, stated that his aim in sponsoring the exploration of the Congo (Zaire) was to open to civilization the only part of the globe which had not been penetrated. The signatories to the General Act of the Berlin conference, dated 26 February 1885, piously declared that the motive in colonizing Africa was ‘to protect the natives in their moral and material well-being’, to suppress slavery and the slave trade and to ‘further the education of the natives’.
a) State, in one sentence the reason why British colonies in Africa were few before 1880.
b) In five sentences, one for each, state the factors that accounted for Europe’s scramble for colonies in Africa after 1880.
a) The British did not consider colonies necessary.
b) i) Europeans needed markets for their surplus goods.
ii) Colonies were needed to supply raw materials for European factories.
iii) Europeans wanted colonies to invest their surplus capital.
iv) Colonies became a means of boosting the prestige of European nations.
v) Europeans wanted to spread their civilization to foreign lands.
Read the following passage carefully and answer in your own words, as far as possible, the questions that follow.
Governments argue that taxes are a necessary evil – the price we pay for a civilized society. Whether you agree with that sentiment or not, it is undeniable that the price is usually a high one.
Taxes can be divided into two categories: direct and indirect. Income tax, corporate tax and property tax are examples of direct tax. Of these, income tax is probably the most resented. This is especially so in countries where income tax is progressive – the more you earn, the more you pay. Critics have an aversion for progressive taxes, for as they usually assert, these taxes are used as punitive and oppressive measures particularly aimed at those who have worked hard to build up their business.
Indirect taxes include sales tax, taxes on liquor and cigarettes, and customs duties. These are less visible than direct taxes but can still deal an economic blow, especially among the poor. According to one writer, “indirect taxes amount to more than 95% of total tax collections in some countries”. Regrettably, workers who are normally affected by prices of commodities already made high by customs duties have a huge chunk of their income consumed by ever-mounting taxes. High taxes on items of mass consumption, such as soap and liquor evidently create this unfortunate situation.
The question is; just what do governments do with all the money they collect? In the first place, the provision of basic and essential public utilities, such as facilities for schools and equipment for hospitals and infrastructure take vast sums of money from government coffers. The government imposes taxes in order to meet these obligations. In some countries, for example, one person in four works in the public sector. This includes teachers, postal workers, hospital personnel, the police, and other government workers. Taxes are needed to pay their salaries and also provide roads, schools and hospitals.
In many European countries, the governments also channel money derived from tax imposition to the promotion of certain vital social amenities including clean water and electricity while generally ensuring a congenial atmosphere for healthy living. As one magazine reports, “Western European countries have introduced environmental tax mostly as a means of reducing air pollution”. In some areas, progressive taxes are used to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor.
It has also been noted that in South Africa, for instance, taxes make up about 50% of the cost of alcohol and cigarettes to curb drinking and smoking. On the other hand, some governments spend tax payers’ money to ensure peace and order in the society by rewarding those who conform to acceptable societal norms and punishing those who kick against the law. Thus taxes may serve as a tool to encourage or discourage certain forms of behaviour.
Indeed, few people will acknowledge the benefits that taxes bring to their communities, but nobody would seriously argue that we will be better off without them.
a) In two sentences, one for each, state for each type of tax, why people resent paying taxes.
b) In three sentences, one for each, state what governments use taxes for.
a) i) Direct taxes take more from hardworking people.
ii) Indirect taxes increase the cost of goods consumed by the poor.
b) i) Governments use tax revenue to provide social amenities.
ii) Tax revenue is also used to pay workers’ salaries.
iii) They use taxes as a tool for checking deviant behavior.
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.
There are many potential dangers to the aviation industry. Apart from technical and mechanical faults emanating from the place, animals like monkeys and birds are also part of the hazard that pilots contend with. Bad weather also hinders the smooth operations of the aviation industry, especially as it affects the flying of planes. It is amazing that birds pose the most serious challenge to flying considering their small size relative to that of a plane.
A bird or a flock of birds that suddenly rises from a runway or surrounding area may possibly cause an accident which may damage the engines or body of an aircraft. Although most bird strikes do not result in crashes, they often cause extensive damage to aircraft.
Birds have always been a hazard to aircraft from the first powered flight. During the early days of aviation when aircraft flew at low speeds, birds had little difficulty getting out of the way. Now that planes fly at high speed, birds cannot avoid oncoming aircraft. Also the new turbine engines have lightweight parts which can easily be damaged on impact with birds.
Airport areas can be both natural and man-made habitats for birds. Most of these habitats abound in a variety of food such as seeds, grass, insects and earthworms which birds feed on. Occasionally, food becomes available through careless waste disposal practices by restaurants in and around the airport.
Birds are attracted by pools of water for drinking and bathing. Rainy periods create these temporary pools. Many airports also have permanent water bodies near or between runways for landscaping, flood control and other purposes. These permanent sources of water provide a variety of bird food, including small fish.
Other things that attract birds to airport areas are the trees, bushy areas, weed patches, shrubs and airport structures which provide suitable habitats for roosting and nesting. In fact, any area that is free from human disturbance may attract birds. No two airports are exactly alike. Due to that, bird hazards vary from airport to airport, even when the same species are involved.
The presence of birds at airports varies according to the environment, weather, season of year and time of day. To ensure successful bird hazard management, waste and refuse disposal within thirteen kilometers radius of the airport should be properly handled. Habitat management practices that make the airport less attractive to birds should be employed. This may include ensuring that rain water is effectively swept or mopped off the runway and aprons, removing or pruning trees and cutting grasses, taking care of foreign objects and debris around the airport.
a) In three sentences, one for each, summarize why birds are attracted to airport areas.
b) In three sentences, one for each, summarize how bird hazards at airports can be prevented.
a) i) Food is easily available in the vicinity of airports.
ii) The abundant water around also attracts birds.
iii) The overgrown vegetation and abandoned structures provide housing for birds.
b) i) There should be proper disposal of waste products.
ii) Airport areas must be rid of rain water.
iii) There should be regular clearing of vegetation.
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions on it.
Francis was very bitter when he warned John not to take any work to the mission press for publication. Francis raved, “When we gave them some new hymns to print for the church, we could count more mistakes in the finished work than there were in the hymnal” he said.
Michael explained that it was the responsibility of the prepress department of a publishing outfit to see to it that there are no errors in a publication. He added that a book usually begins with a writer’s manuscript, which is written out in long hand. A typist converts this into a typescript. When this typescript is accepted by a publisher for publication, he gives it to a programmer to key material into a computer. The first printouts from the computer, called galley proofs, are given back to the writer to read and check whether everything that he has written is there. This first check is to make sure there are no omissions.
When the galley proofs get back to the computer room, they are formatted into pages; at least three proof-readers have to go through these pages with a fine tooth comb, checking spelling mistakes, punctuation errors, and infelicities in various constructions. They indicate their corrections and return the proofs to the computer room. Three proof-readers are the minimum number of professionals recommended for this work, because, since different people tend to see different mistakes in the same script, their concerted efforts will, hopefully, indentify all the mistakes in the proofs.
The proofs go back to the proof-readers. This is because each of them might have missed out certain errors the first time. Now is their turn to make their omissions good.
Secondly, the programmer might have glanced over some of the recommendations that the proof-readers had made the first time around.
The proof-readers repeat their work and send the proofs back to the computer room. Three times this proof-reading and correcting go on. Each time, surprisingly, new mistakes are identified and subsequently corrected.
The proofs then go back to the writer for a final check on spellings, punctuations, and sentence constructions. When the writer is satisfied, the computer room passes the proofs through the computer’s word perfect programme. This is to make sure that, apart from non-English words, every word in the script is certified as correct.
Only after all these stages can a script be handed over to a printing press. As its name implies, a printing press is only there to print material that a publisher gives it. It does not have the set-up to read, edit, correct, and verify anything.
Michael looked at Francis and asked, “Did you go through all those stages of pre-press checking before you gave the hymns to the mission press?
Francis shook his head. ]
“Well, who is to blame for the mistakes in the hymnal, then? Surely, you should have done your bit?”Michael ended his defense of the mission press.
Francis said nothing; but his face showed that he was a wiser man
In six sentences, state the stages that a manuscript passes through before it is given out to a printing press.
First the manuscript is typed and keyed into a computer.
The product is given to the writer to proofread. Twice it goes through the hands of professional proof – readers. The proof-read material is then sent back to the computer room and back to the writer for final grammatical corrections to be done. Lastly, the word perfect programme of the computer ascertains the correct spelling of every English word and afterwards, the script is sent be the printing press..
Warming: the Surgeon- General has determined that cigarette smoking is dangerous to your health. Thousands of times a message is ignored by the elite group of people known as smokers. It seems ridiculous in this decade of self-improvement and self-preservation that any one could fail to notice such a warning. And yet the tobacco industry is booming, mass producing countless brands of cigar, cigarettes, and pipe tobacco.
But why? Why do teenagers, old men, and victims still insist on polluting their bodies with smoke? There is, unfortunately, no clear answer to the question because there are many different kinds of smokers and many different reasons why they smoke.
There is, for example, the peer-group smoker. This smoker has taken up the habit because of pressure from his social environment. He smokes only to be able to fit in with the crowd and to be accepted. This kind of smoking habit is frequently found among teenagers, for whom social acceptance is particularly important.
The peer-group smoker is usually not an intense smoker, and he tends to get little pleasure from the act since he has been forced into it. Consequently, he may eventually decide to stop as soon as he gets a bit older and begins to feel independent of the “group”.
The casual smoker is inclined to be more serious. He smokes because he wants to and enjoys it. He usually smokes when having a drink and in other social settings. This type of smoker also varies his consumption of cigarettes. Sometimes he may have as little as two or three a day, and other times a pack or two in only a few hours, depending on his social settings. Common claims from this casual smoker are, “Oh, I don’t really smoke” and “I can quit anytime I want”. In many cases, this latter statement is true. The casual smoker can eventually quit if he really wants to because smoking has not yet become an over-riding force in his life.
This, however, is not the case for the addicted smoker. He cannot quit as readily as the casual smoker can because of one key factor: habit. When having a cup of coffee in the morning, he simply must have a cigarette because “the coffee won’t taste as good without it”. And always, without fail, a good meal is followed by a good cigarette. The addicted smoker also smokes on a regular basis-a pack or two a day, never more, never less. He becomes irritated when he discovers he is down to his last butt and rushes to buy another pack. He plays games in his mind by buying only packs instead of cartons, rationalizing that because cigarettes arent’s always on hand he can’t be smoking too much. He is constantly trying to cut down and tells everyone so, but never actually does, because in reality, he is addicted to smoking.
The last and most dramatic (and drastic) example is the compulsive smoker. This smoker cannot imagine life without cigarettes. They have become a part of his life and most of the day’s action includes “lighting up.” It has become almost psychological torment of the smoker to think of a day without smoke. It has been found in some studies that people like that actually wake themselves every few hours at night to have a quick drag, and then drift back to sleep.
Even as his appearance and health become damaged, the compulsive smoker will not stop. He continues to smoke as he gradually acquires dingy, yellowing teeth; smoker’s discoloration of the eyes; and a “nasty little cough”. Compulsive smokers often state, “I am gong to die anyway, so why not from smoking” and in many cases unfortunately, that is the compulsive smoker’s fate.
a) In one sentence, contrast the peer-group smoker’s reason for smoking with that of the casual smoker.
b) In three sentences, one for each, state three characteristics of the addicted smoker.
c) In two sentences, one for each, state two effects of smoking on the compulsive smoker.
(a) The peer-group smoker smokes for group acceptance but the casual smoker does so for pleasure.
(b) i. He smokes at the least opportunity.
ii. His smoking pattern is constant.
iii. He wishes to smoke less but cannot do so.
(c) i. His health deteriorates.
ii. He dies eventually.
No discussion of a just and free society would be complete without consideration of the special position of women. Equality is idivisible. But in many societies women do not have equal rights with men. Jamaica is no exception.
Jamaican women do not have full equality before the law in a number of respects, and particular in marriage. More often than not they get less pay than men for the same work. They do not enjoy equal job opportunities and often suffer while substantial public and unemployment relief works are designed with men exclusively in view. There are very few women members in an elected parliament of fifty- three; only a handful in top civil service posts. All this happened in spite of the fact that girls have equal access to early education and have a generally superior record of academic performance. It happens, too in spite of the fact that women have been the backbone of the Jamaican family for a century and tend to be active in politics as well.
Clearly, therefore, the disabilities from which they suffer in adult life are the result of systematic discrimination against them. It is also because of deep-seated prejudices in the society. There is, however, nothing in all this that is peculiar to Jamaica whose women certainly enjoy a superior status to that obtains in developing countries.
In spite of this, both social justice and common sense dictate the need for a change. There must be a systematic programme of legislation and changes in our basic institutions to allow women to take their full and equal place as dynamic and involved participants in the affairs of the society. Laws must be revised to remove all traces of discrimination against women. Training programmes must be devised and job opportunities created on equal basis for both men and women. In this way one would simultaneously satisfy the principle of equality and release the great reservoir of energy and talent that is locked away in the female half of the population. The society cannot afford to continue to miss the special qualities of common sense and patience which women acquire as part of the preparation for and experience of motherhood.
It must be emphasized that it is impossible to conceive of social justice unless decisions taken at every level in the society include and reflect both male and female view points. Each sex views reality from the perspective of its particular role in the society and family. State policy would, without doubt, be incomplete and ineffective if it does not incorporate the views and expectations of both sexes.
a) In three sentences, state three reasons why according to the passage, Jamaican women do not enjoy equal rights with men.
b) In two sentences, state two ways by which women could attain equality with men.
c) In a sentence state one reason given by the writer to support his call for granting equal rights.
(a) i. There is a conscious effort to make women remain the underdogs.
ii. Long-held traditional views about women still persist.
iii. The world, which Jamaica is a part, is dominated. by men.
(b) i. Better legislation must be promulgated to cater for women’s rights.
ii. Better educational and employment opportunities must be created for women.
(c) Women’s special qualities would be brought to bear on the national development effort.
Read the following passage carefully and answer in your own
words, as far as possible, the questions on it.
Organized crime is a growing menace. The mass media daily report the unspeakable horrors of criminal activities. Crime involves not only the stealing of property and money but also, smuggling, kidnapping, rape and murder, as well as what is now known as internet fraud. Criminals will stop at nothing in their desperate bid to be rich at all cost. Indeed, the desire to become very rich within the shortest possible time and without toil actually makes people indulge in crime.
Very often, the ostentatious display of wealth by the rich can influence the youth to take to crime. The increasing crime rate appears to be connected with the growth of cities and with development generally. While criminals wish to indulge in crime, they are afraid of detection and so they operate in large towns where they easily melt into the teeming crowd and therefore manage to hide their identities. For cities are so large and sprawling that it becomes easy for a crime to be at one end while the other provides a safe haven for criminals.
The incidence of crime was less frequent in the past than it is at present. The causes of this difference in the rate of crime are many and varied. There are some people who relate crime to the cost of living. Where the cost of living is high, and many workers receive low wages, some are likely to consider crime as an alternative and even an attractive means of making ends meet. Inadequate remuneration makes people resort to all sorts of unapproved and anti-social ways to get rich.
Unemployment forces people to move from the rural areas to the urban areas in search of jobs. In their bid to survive in the cities, some turn to crime. The desire to get rich quick also makes people engage in acts like selling and pushing drugs. The sale of narcotic substances like Indian hemp and cocaine fetches huge sums of money. But even when the drug pushers have amassed wealth, they do not quit their evil trade; greed in their nature propels them on.
There must be a decisive attitudinal change in today’s society if a lasting solution is to be found to this menace. The permissive ways of our society seems to condone wrongdoing as the rich are accorded a lot of respect, no matter how they come by their wealth. Thus, our society has, regrettably, been harboring criminals and this frustrates the law enforcement agents in their effort to stamp out crime.
The established laws are ineffective because there are loopholes in the legal structures. These enable criminals to wriggle themselves out of tight situations and continue to indulge in crime with impunity. Strict laws should therefore not only be enacted but also law – breakers should be punished severely to serve as deterrent to would – be offenders. Thus, while crime in our societies cannot be completely eradicated, it can be contained even as our cities grow and expand.
a) In four sentences, one for each, state what attracts people to engage in crime.
b) In two sentences, one for each, state the measures which can be adopted to check crime.
a) i) Rich people who show off their wealth tempt others to steal.
ii) Large cities provide a haven for people to indulge in crime.
iii) High cost of living pushes people into crime.
iv) Greed makes people indulge in crime.
b) i) Society must not condone deviant behavior.
ii) Strict laws must be enacted and be made to deal ruthlessly with criminals.
Read the following passage carefully and answer in your own
words, as far as possible, the questions that follow:
The giving of aid by the rich, developed North to the developing south means various things to various people. One school of thought believes that it is moral conscience that drives the north to help the south with a view to creating a good and just society in a world of friendship, respect for human rights and love. Others, however, think that a donor gives money to a poor country to enable it to develop into a market which it eventually exploits. Whatever the reason, the common factor remains that aid is ostensibly a means for the good of the recipient.
How some countries in the south use aid makes the North wonder why they should continue doling out money to them. Many in the developed North have now convinced themselves that giving aid to the developing south is like pouring water into a wastebasket; it has hitherto been a total failure.
But that the South still remains poor cannot be totally blamed on the mismanagement of aid. It is known that by the early 1980s, aid was given out on certain conditions. The donor said, ‘if I give you aid, you have to buy my products and must call my people to help you spend the money.’ This means that they gave out aid with one had but took back something in return with the other. And so, by the second half of the 1980s, capital transfers from the South to the North favoured the latter. In 1992, for example, there was a net transfer of $50 billion from the South to the North but the South still had almost the whole debt to pay.
However, these imbalances have not been entirely due to the North. Often, certain groups in the developing countries, such as local purchasers, exploiters, the military, corrupt government officials and politicians, are to blame for the failure of development policies.
It is a well-known fact that in the South most aid received is either diverted or converted into purchasing large stocks of arms, buying luxurious goods or building prestigious mansions while badly needed infrastructure is neglected. The people go hungry and have little or no health facilities or education. Meanwhile their leaders drive the latest cars, fly daily in jet planes and arrogantly flaunt their personal wealth.
Unless something drastic is done, the south will remain doomed forever in their poverty. The wealthy North should not give up on the south but should rather join forces with the poor south to rescue them. People must admit their past errors, should not repeat them, and reorganize the world. The south may be very ill but all is not lost.
a) In one sentence, state why the North presumably gives aid to the south.
b) In one sentence, state how the rich North exploits the developing south.
c) In three sentences, one for each, summarize the causes of the failure of development policies in the poor South.
d) In one sentence, state how the South can be redeemed.
a) i) Aid is meant to benefit the south
b) The North makes sure it takes away more than it gives as aid.
c) i) Governments in the south misappropriate aid money.
ii) Corrupt officials embezzle aid to enrich themselves.
iii) Exploitative conditions attached to aid undermine the purpose for giving aid.
d)The North and the South must work together to correct mistakes of the past.
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions on it.
Games in our culture are many and varied. African children make use of every available space and time to engage in one game or the other. Children may be found in groups playing with home-made musical instruments such as flutes, drums, pawpaw stalks and gongs, or clapping their hands rhythmically to music or movement, or to both.
It is interesting to see the seriousness, the involvement and the sense of commitment with which these games are played. To the African child, games are work and part of the process of growing up. Much attention is given to games demanding physical strength, in which children run, wrestle, lift, throw or jump.
Games in which play objects such as stones, gravel, fruits, water, tins, marbles and sticks are used are very common with younger children between the ages of two and ten. Occasionally, we find a child playing all alone, talking to himself or laughing, or engaged in serious conversation with an imaginary partner or playmate. Such individual plays are as serious and important as the group play.
There is no doubt that through play children become aware of their culture and interact with their environment, face problems and solve them. In the process, deep-seated emotions in the individual are brought to the surface and met with the appropriate physical, mental or emotional responses, and thus resolved.
Working together with others a child acquires the spirit of cooperation, tolerance and appreciation, which helps him in future life to work with others to improve his community and his nation. Through the manipulation of physical objects and the solution of problems that arise during play, the child develops fast thinking and creativity.
Both physical and mental play, whether in groups or individually, lead to improved physical, mental and emotional health and ensure that the child grows in a balanced, orderly way. A child who is not given the opportunity to play grows up without many of the qualities that are needed for a successful adult life. Play is as important to the child as work is to the adult.
a) In two sentences, one for each, state two types of play children engage in.
b) In four sentences, one for each, mention the benefits children derive from play.
a. i) Children engage in group plays.
ii) They also engage in individual play.
b. i) Play allows children to learn more about their culture.
ii) Children acquire problem-solving skills through play.
iii) Play enables children to develop a cooperative spirit.
iv) Through play, children learn to think more creatively.
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Question Source: The West African Examinations Council