The sample WASSCE English summary questions and answers in this post will give you enough guidance and also inspire you to confidently write your own summary answers at any time.
Read the following passages carefully and answer in your own words, as far as possible, the questions that follow.
Beloved, here was an extraordinary life well lived. She came to the world on that April morning in 1867 with nothing but on leaving, has left so much behind – money, properties and loads of controversy! Fellow mourners, who was the woman Amanda Chile? Maybe few people know a bit about her but just a bit – but we never could understand what we knew – only her creator would understand that complex character called Amanda. So let’s tell you what we know as a family.
Amanda was like a junction town. Depending on the direction from which you approached her you’d see certain invisible features as you got closer. You couldn’t miss one thing though: she was warm. A friendly angel, easy to make friends with. Last time our sister Krishna told me she couldn’t understand how Amanda could easily charm even her bitterest political opponents to make them feel so much at ease in her company. Yes Amanda was a charmer: a real genius whose broad sunny smile would make any stony heart melt like butter.
Ladies and gentlemen, we all here will miss Amanda not just because she charmed our hearts but also because she cared. She was compassionate toward others so she would gladly sacrifice her own comfort just to bring joy to a miserable soul. That explained the existence of the Amanda Chile Foundation which has raised many from the abyss of poverty, ignorance and disease to respectable standards of living. Talk of the scholarships, the micro- credit schemes, housing schemes and the philanthropic activities of our now-departed Amanda. Sister, we shall surely miss you dearly.
Sadly, this soft- hearted nature of this great heroine has turned out to be the cause and the effect of her tragedies which invariably stirred so much controversy during her lifetime. Men took advantage of Amanda’s gentle heart. They preyed on her!! They pried into her heart and caused havoc not only to her finances but also to her gentle heart. As concerned sisters, we had cause to express our concern to her about how easily she allowed jerks to virtually loot her heart and house but all to no avail. She seemed to have a bottomless pit of pity even for wolves.
Thus onlookers, disgruntled parasites and envious folks who could not stomach Amanda’s fame and success joined forces to spread the vicious falsehood that Amanda was a man-eater who chose and changed men as she pleased. But we know better. Our sister was just a simple compassionate soul!
Finally, brethren in the Lord, let everybody know that Amanda, contrary to what you all thought, Amanda was a long suffering person whose experiences as a little girl came to shape her eventful life. In fact, privately, Amanda was a very sad, lonely person up to the grave. She has never been a truly happy person as she appeared in public. Frequently, in the privacy of her room she would cry bitterly only to smile broadly when we chanced upon her.
Then, shocking as it may sound to you, our sister was in fact not our sister: she was picked up and fostered as a child by our parents when her poor mother abandoned her on a heap of rubbish one cold winter night. Yes, Amanda has lived an enigmatic life and has left us all wondering exactly whom she really was. May her soul rest in peace. Thank you.
WAEC Summary Questions
a. In two sentences, one for each, state Amanda Chile’s two admirable qualities.
b. In two sentences one for each, summarize the two tragic effects of Amanda’s soft-hearted nature.
c. In two sentences, one for each, state the two hidden aspects of Amanda Chile’s life.
Recommended WAEC Summary Answers
a. i. Amanda was a friendly person. ii. She cared about others.
b. i. Men exploited Amanda’s soft-hearted nature. ii. Envious people tarnished Amada’s image.
c. i. Amanda was never a happy individual. ii. She was an adopted child.
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There were certain underlying conditions that enabled department stores grow up when they did. From the start, they all catered for middle-class customers and set out to convey to them an air of luxury and solid comfort. Of necessity, they all arose in central positions where large numbers of people could reach them easily by means of public transport. Physically, they grew up in an era of big technical developments in building so that they could afford multi-storey palaces and could have enormous plate-glass windows for display, lighting and novelties like lifts.
Above all, the department stores rose with the rise of Victorian white-collar workers, the small-scale businessmen and professionals whose womenfolk had money to spare for a few luxuries and were gradually switching the emphasis of their housekeeping expenditure from food to other items.
Most of these stores drew enough customers to fill their huge shops by offering two new things. One was the new manufactures, particularly clothing, goods and accessories, household furnishings and equipment of all kinds that were coming out of the factories in increasing quantity. The specialist shops stocked these too, of course, but the department stores always made it a point to be the first in the field if they could with novelty of any kind. And the other special thing they offered the middle-class shoppers, many of whom were newly rich and a little experienced in luxury shopping, was a lavish display and wide choice of these goods.
The department stores, however, introduced into a respectable class trade the vulgar practice of openly marking or ticketing goods with their prices – a practice that had not even yet penetrated shops that could claim that they were really exclusive. But the department stores as a rule made a virtue not only of displaying their wares as openly as they could but also of boldly pricing them for all to see. Their large-scale purchases enabled them to sell cheaply and they were not ashamed in the early days to make price one of their selling points. ‘Store price’ was a by-word for cheapness.
The lines they concentrated on were fashion goods, things that shoppers were prepared to travel long distances for and to take some time and trouble in choosing. The department stores were at least partly responsible for the way the middle classes gradually became fashion conscious, and helped to mould their tastes. They were the first preachers of the modern creed that goods ought to be replaced when they are outdated rather than when they are outworn.
WASSCE Summary Questions
a) In four sentences, one for each, summarize why people were attracted to the department stores.
b) In two sentences, one for each, state the effects department stores had on their customers.
Recommended WASSCE Summary Answers
a) i) They were the first to sell the latest goods.
ii) They offered different kinds of goods.
iii) They openly displayed their prices.
iv) Their prices were low.
b) i) They turned their customers into lovers of fashion.
ii) They shaped their customers’ tastes.
Read the following passage carefully and answer in your own words as far as possible, the questions that follow.
It has been the custom of historians to divide the factors for wars into immediate and underlying causes. Among these underlying causes, the economic factor is generally placed at the head of the list. Indeed, the most important of these was the industrial and commercial rivalry between Germany and Great Britain.
Germany, after its unification in 1871, went through a period of economic miracle. By 1914, she was producing more iron and steel than Britain and France combined. In chemicals, in dye, and in the manufacture of scientific equipment she led the world. The products of her industries were crowding British manufactures in nearly every market for continental Europe, in the Far East and in Britain itself.
There is evidence that certain interests in Great Britain were becoming seriously alarmed over the menace of German competition.
There seemed to be a strong conviction that Germany was waging deliberate and deadly economic warfare upon Britain to capture her market by unfair methods. Thus, for Britain to allow Germany to be victorious in this struggle would mean the destruction of her prosperity and a grave threat to her national existence.
There are indications that the French also were alarmed by the German industrial expansion. In 1870, France had lost possession of the expensive iron and coal deposit of Lorraine, which had gone to swell the industrial growth of Germany. To be sure, the French had plenty of iron left in the Briery Fields, but they were afraid that their enemy might eventually reach out and grab these too. Besides, France was under necessity of importing coal and this galled her pride almost as much as the loss of the iron.
In addition, the Russian ambition to gain control of Constantinople and other portions of Turkish territory conflicted with German plans for reserving the Turkish Empire as their happy hunting ground of commercial privilege. Then Russia and Austria a close ally of Germany were rivals for a monopoly of trade with the Balkan kingdoms of Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria and Greece.
- In two sentences, one for each, state two reasons why Britain considered Germany a threat.
- In two sentences, one for each, state two reasons why the French felt threatened by the Germans.
- In two sentences, one for each, state two factors responsible for Russian antagonism with Germany.
a) i. Germany’s production level started rising higher than Britain’s
ii. Britain was finding it difficult to cope with German commercial competition.
b) i. Germany had taken over much of France’s iron and coal resources.
ii. There was the danger that Germany might take over the rest of France’s oil and coal resources.
c) i. There was a scramble for the control of the Turkish Empire by the two countries.
ii. Germany’s ally, Austria, was engaged in a bitter struggle with Russia over who gained control over trade in the Balkans.
Read the passage below carefully and then answer in your own words as far as possible the questions on it.
Mining ranks among the world’s most destructive industries. Yet mineral extraction and processing are absent in most discussions of global environmental threats. Governmental and private analyses have focused only on increasing mineral supplies.
Each year, mining strips some 28 billion tons of material from the earth. This is more than what is removed by the natural erosion of all the earth’s rivers. Worldwide, mining and smelting generate an estimated 2.7 billion tons of processing waste each year, much of it hazardous dwarfing the more familiar municipal waste. Smelter pollution has created biological wastelands as large as 10, 000 hectares and pumped some eight percent of the total worldwide emissions of sulphur dioxide, a major contributor to acid rain, into the atmosphere.
Mining could also cause more damaging deforestation than bad farming practices in certain parts of the world. For example, smelters at a single iron mine in Brazil will require enough fuelwood to deforest 50,000 hectares of tropical forest each year.
Mining has been poorly regulated even in wealthy industrialized nations. While many governments subsidize mineral production, few enact or enforce strict environmental regulations for mining operations. As a result, not only are many mining activities more environmentally destructive than need be, but prices of minerals do not include their full environmental cost. Today’s low mineral prices reflect only the immediate economics of extraction and destruction. They fail to consider the full costs of eroded land, dammed or polluted rivers and displacement of people unlucky enough to live atop mineral deposits. In light of this, governments should remove subsidies provided for mining virgin minerals.
The devastating effects of the industry are particularly severe in the developing countries which have been producing a substantial portion of the world’s mineral supplies, although they use relatively little. This is because environmental controls tend to be weak or non-existent in these countries. What makes their situation more pathetic is that many of them are among the world’s poorest nations.
Contrary to popular belief, the people of most mineral–exporting countries gain little from mining. Expensive investment in equipment and infrastructure combined with falling world mineral prices, especially during the eighties, has made these countries some of the world’s most heavily indebted.
While the world appears in little danger of running out of most non-fuel minerals, it is obvious that the planet cannot afford the human and ecological price of its growing appetite for minerals. It will therefore be wise to satisfy human needs with smaller amounts of virgin minerals. It will also work for our good if we increase recycling of materials, and make metal-based products more durable and easier to repair.
a) In three sentences, one for each, state three reasons given by the writer to support his view that mining is a destructive industry.
b) In one sentence, state one effect of the poor regulation of mining operations.
c) In two sentences, one for each, state two suggestions made by the writer towards reducing the destructive effects of mining activities.
a) i. It causes erosion.
ii. It leads to environmental pollution.
iii. It encourages desertification.
b) Poor regulation of mining activities causes unnecessary damage to the environment.
c) i. Lesser amounts of mineral products should be consumed.
ii. Recycling of used products should be stepped up.
No. one can seriously pretend to remain unaffected by advertisement. It is impossible to turn a blind eye to the solicitors to buy this or that article that fills our streets, newspapers and magazines. Even in the sanctuary of our living rooms, advertisers are waiting to pounce on their helpless victims as they tune to their favourite radio or television programmes. In time, no matter how hard we resist, clever little tunes and catchphrases seep into our subconscious minds and stay there. Though they seem so varied, all these advertisements have one thing in common: they make strong appeals to our emotions.
Fear is the biggest weapon of all. The consumer is literally scared into spending his money when he is reminded that he may die tomorrow and leave his family unprovided for; his house may be burnt down while he is away on holiday; that mysterious pain he has in his stomach (which he innocently took to be indigestion) is really the first symptom of a serious nervous disorder. The bait dangled before his nose is security, and he is gripped with fear when he compares his miserable lot with that of the smiling, healthy-looking man in the advertisement, who was provident enough to do all the right things at the right times.
But we are not always dealt with so roughly. Sometimes, it is not our fears that are invoked, but our sense of comfort. Human ingenuity devised countless machines that take the drudgery out of our housework. All you need to do is press a button.
The softest spot of all is our vanity. No man wants the bald before he is thirty; no woman wants to lose her school-girl complexion.
We are flattered and coaxed until we almost believe that we have the makings of potential film stars, provided of course, that we use X or Y.
Sometimes the methods employed are even more subtle. They persuade us that we are superior to other people and it is time we realized it. The funny man in the poster established immediate contact with us by making us feel that we belong to the select few who have a sense of humor. Austere black type and profoundly serious statements confirm what we knew all along that we are highly intelligent.
No amount of logical argument can convince so much as this assault on our emotions. When a crunchy, honey-filled chocolate bar stares up at you from a page, what else can you do but rush and buy one?
a) In one sentence state the main characteristic of advertisement.
b) In the first paragraph, the writer says something unpleasant about advertising. Summarize this in one sentence.
c) In one sentence, state which senses advertising takes advantage of.
d) In two sentences, one for each, state the materials and techniques used in advertising.
a) Advertisements attract everybody’s attention by working on their feelings.
b) Advertising invades the individual’s privacy without warning
c) It takes advantage of the senses of fear, comfort, vanity, humour and taste.
d) i. Materials such as newspapers, magazines, radio and television are used in advertising.
ii. Attractive pictures, catchy phrases and music are techniques used to appeal to a person’s emotions.
Read the passage below carefully and then answer, in your own words as far as passable, the questions on it
The world’s universities are bursting at their seams: every faculty has recently had to close its doors to hundreds of heartbroken applicants. Archaeology is no exception; and that is as it should be, for, without this discipline, the world would have been deprived of every useful bit of knowledge. One shudders at how badly off the world would have been for the lack of such useful knowledge.
For instance, last Friday, 13th of August, every news bulletin carried the item of a most exhilarating archaeological find, nine-thousand-year old fossils dug up from 15 miles below the earth’s surface have revealed that in pre-historic times teenagers chewed gum. The experts knew that the teeth of the fossil definitely belonged to a teenager because, although they were not as developed as a fully grown adult’s they were much stronger than a child’s would have been. The gum has been solidified from sap from a birch tree and must have been sweetened with honey with mint leaf added for flavor.
Further research was promised to determine whether chewing gum was medicinal. The suspicion was that if it was otherwise why would a teenager in the bloom of youthful exuberance lie dead with his gum securely wedged between his molars? Research would also establish whether the pre-historic teenager chewed his gum until all its sweetness ran out and whether he did so with relish.
The excavation and its attendant analyses have so far cost 18 billion American dollars, the newscaster said, a further 10 billion has been allocated to the Archaeological consortium to resolve the questions that puzzled scientists, historians and sociologists – indeed the whole of the academic world.
Anum chewed his lower lip as he gazed at the pre-set radio that was excitedly blasting the details. Being a typical Third world county bumpkin with no breeding in aesthetics, he mused upon how very grateful his debt-ridden motherland would be if these billions were to be given her to pay some of her foreign debts. But that is to be expected because Anum is too philistine to pay compliments where compliments are due.
The mothers of the women’s union were more cultured in their views. They would be grateful if a little more money is added to the allocation to enable the archaeologists to tell them whether the mothers of the Stone Age era approved of their teenage children cheerily chewing their pre-historic chewing gum.
a) In a single sentence, use three adjectives that describe pre-historic chewing gum.
b) In one sentence, state the general usefulness of archaeology.
c) In three sentences, one for each, list the points that further research should clarify about pre-historic chewing gum.
d) In one sentence, contrast Anum’s attitude with that of the archaeologists.
(a) It was hard, sugary and tasty
(b) It creates an avenue for learning about and understanding the past
(c) (i) It was to establish if chewing gum had some healing properties
(ii) It was to find out if the chewing gum was chewed until it lost its sweetness
(ii) Further research should clarify whether the teenagers enjoyed chewing it.
d) Whilst Anum considers archaeological research as a waste of scarce resources, the archaeologists appear to attach great importance to their work.
Let us take a sober look at one of the many ancient virtues that Sunday school teachers used to make us believe will take us to heaven. Sister Victoria preached temperance. Sister said that everything was good for our souls provided it was done with temperance, many of my classmates loved the word temperance, because as Sophia used to say, “The word came tripping off our tongues and made us sound learned”.
Modern scientists have gone through tons of research material and have come full circle to conclude that, if we want to live safe and sound, we should do everything with moderation. Science says that sleep is a tonic for our bodies; provided the habit is not over-indulged in. Six hours of sleep each night will make us grow old before our time.
Heart surgeons tell us that gentle daily exercise protects us from heart attacks; that irregular outbursts of vigorous exercise will kill us in no time.
Beauticians warn us that occasional smiling relaxes the muscles of the face, but that persistent grinning from ear to ear disturbs the smoothness of the face and makes us wrinkle up and look old before our time.
The conclusions of both religion and science merge into a single lesson that for anything to give us its full advantages it should be done with lukewarm indifference. Tony is not all sure that he likes temperance for the welfare of his soul, nor for the good of his body. His main consolation is that his two colleagues, Boat and Akua also dislike indifference.
Tony’s elder sister Emerald, has warned him that it is immature to divide the world into only blacks and whites, Emerald endorses the Biblical and scientific view that most of our world is really created in some indistinct insipid grey all the same.
Tony has promised that he may accept uninteresting moderation when he has one foot in the grave. Right now, however, he means to discover the joys of living dangerously.
a) In not more than eight words, find a suitable title for this passage. Do not use the words temperance and moderation. Your answer does not have to be a sentence.
b) In one sentence, state the main advantage of the virtues.
c) In three short sentences, summarize the specific recommendations of science.
d) In one sentence, state the difference between temperance and moderation.
(a) AVOID EXCESSES TO ENJOY A LONGER LIFE.
(b) One can enjoy a happier and longer life.
(c) (i) Sleep should be restricted to very few hours.
(ii) A little exercise a day is all that the body needs.
(ii) Only short spells of smiling are good for the face.
(d) Whilst temperance enriches one spiritually, moderation ensures one’s physical health
Read the following passage carefully and answer in your own words, as far as possible, the questions on it.
One perennial problem which school authorities have to grapple with is indiscipline. In some schools, acts of gross indiscipline are indulged in on a daily basis. Despite this, corporal punishment which was used to curb this in the past has been banned by the education authorities. Indiscipline has led to chaos and upheavals in many cases. This accounts for the poor academic performance of some schools. Sometimes, the student’s future is ruined as he leaves school prematurely, becoming a burden on his family and a potential threat to the society.
The causes of indiscipline in schools can, in the first place be traced to the family background of the student. Charity is said to begin at home. Family upbringing is the foundation of the child’s character. The moral fiber and behavior of an individual speak volumes about the type of training given him at home. Take insubordination for example. It can be traced to pampering and over-indulging of the child at home by the parents. Children from such a background find it difficult to obey simple school regulations. They cannot bear the control that contrasts with the permissiveness experienced at home.
Another form of indiscipline which has defied solution is examination malpractice. This is often blamed on the dishonesty of the individual, but the real problem is the family’s failure to inculcate in the child the virtues and benefits of hard work. Students who indulge in such acts often see those around them succeeding through fraudulent means so they try to follow suit. The larger society must also take some of the blame because it condones such fraudulent acts. The habit of worshipping the rich, regardless of the questionable sources of the wealth of some of them, makes the young develop the end justifies the means attitude. They would therefore not devote their time to their studies but sit by and seek and employ all means to pass their examinations.
It cannot be denied that indiscipline in schools has far-reaching consequences for society at large. The school brings up most of our leaders. So the corrupt and dishonest leaders of tomorrow are the students who cheat in examinations and wantonly break school regulations today. It is therefore important to curb the spate of indiscipline in our schools.
The solution will not come easily but a measure of success can be achieved if counselling sessions are held regularly for students and students are taught how to invest their energies in profitable ventures. Concerted efforts should be made to build strong family values which can assist the child to imbibe the cherished virtues of society. Consequently, leaders, whether political, religious, business or community must hold themselves up as models for students. Those who indulge in acts of indiscipline, whether students or adults must be severely dealt with to serve as a deterrent to others. Parents and guardians should be interested not only in their wards’ academic progress but also closely monitor their social life at home and in school by paying regular visits to the school.
a) In two sentences, one for each, state two ways in which the family contributes to indiscipline in children.
b) In one sentence, state one way in which society contributes to indiscipline in children
c) In three sentences, one for each, state the remedies suggested by the writer in curbing indiscipline.
a) i)Some families pamper their children.
ii) Some do not instill the value of hard work in their children.
b) Society tends to encourage dishonesty.
c) i) Students need to be counselled.
ii) Strong family values must be inculcated in children.
iii) Wrongdoers must be severely sanctioned.
Read the following passage carefully and answer in your own words, as far as possible, the questions on it.
One thing which distinguishes the world of entertainment as unique is its worldwide appeal and the fact that it provides a glamorous means of living for countless numbers of people. People of all walks of life, of all ages and from all parts of the world, hold similar views about entertainment. Top entertainers have performed before kings, queens and other dignitaries.
Entertainment comes to us in different forms – recitals, narrations, songs, drama and dance. These are meant to please people, make them feel happy and sometimes instruct them. Audiences are particularly thrilled by the antics and acrobatic displays that well-trained entertainers put up on stage. Apart from performing in shows before packed audiences in the country’s stadia in commemoration of Independence Day and other important historical events.
Entertainment, it is true, has a natural quality of attracting people away from their workplaces and making them unburden their minds and hearts in uncontrollable laughter. This is why it is often said that entertainment can improve the health of those weighed down by depression. Indeed, it has other therapeutic effects.
One often observes people from all walks of life showing a deep interest in entertainment. It is heart-warming that through entertainment, people from different backgrounds sink their differences and share the thrills together. Keats says A thing of beauty is a joy forever. I have never seen any group of people frown on enjoyment; the pleasures of life know no bounds.
However, the darker side of the world of entertainment presents an appalling picture. Sometimes, people who are gullible, copy undesirable traits and ways of popular artists and practice them. Others indulge in criminal and anti-social activities. Newspapers present horrible reports of popular entertainers who have indulged in various immoral practices such as trading in drugs and even becoming drug pushers. And there are others who drive carelessly under the influence of alcohol and perish in untimely deaths. It is, indeed, sad that some of these people lead irresponsible lives thus casting a slur on the image of the entertainment industry.
Some great entertainers have, without doubt, tarnished their reputation and disappointed their followers while attracting criticism from the general public. To say the least, entertainment has ruined many lives. Once, an audience that was worked to a high pitch of excitement made a rush for the stage, killing a lot of people in the ensuing stampede.
Very few people will dispute the fact that entertainers have exercised negative influences on the characters of the youth who have imbibed their ideas. Once such wrong ideas get imprinted on their young minds, it becomes next to impossible to get rid of them. It would therefore be more beneficial if we were selective in what we watched by way of entertainment. In this way, the entertainment industry would be helped to grow and made to serve the nation better
a) In three sentences, one for each, state the advantages of entertainment.
b) In two sentences, one for each, state the arguments that critics advance against entertainment.
c) In one sentence, state how people can get maximum benefit from entertainment.
a) i)It provides employment for many. (OR: It is a source of income for many people.)
ii) Entertainment has health benefits.
iii) It unites people.
b) i) It can provide bad role models for the youth.
ii) Entertainment has destroyed many lives.
c) People must choose their form of entertainment wisely. (OR: People must be careful in choosing their type of entertainment.)
Read the following passage carefully and answer in your own words, as far as possible, the questions on it.
A woman’s health is critical to the economic and social well-being of her family, community ad country. The health of a pregnant woman is even more special because she needs access to health services to save her from death resulting from complications relating to childbirth, which are best treated by the obstetrician specialist. That is why maternal health has been given a central place on the Millennium Development Goals launched recently.
Twenty years of research and pilot interventions have shown that complications due to pregnancy which might lead to death come in various forms. In deprived areas of the country, pregnant women tend to suffer from malnutrition. Not enough variety of food is available to them. They eat foods lacking in the rich nutrients needed by both mother and child to stay healthy. In the absence of a balanced diet, malnutrition and anemia set in. The expectant mother is unlikely to survive without medical intervention.
Sometimes, mother and unborn child may look healthy as long as the pregnancy lasts. Soon the mother feels she is in labour but this may be false. Without a professional attendant to confirm labour, she may be forced to push out the baby prematurely and cause fatal damage to herself and the baby.
Now that in many countries the law permits women to abort unwanted babies, some pregnant women take advantage of this law. Sometimes also, certain medical conditions may compel an obstetrician to abort a baby in order to save the mother. Such abortions are considered safe, but the unsafe ones are those that are carried out by mothers alone, with help from some unapproved potions or quack doctors. The newspapers often narrate sorrowful tales of mothers who die by causing abortion. An alcoholic mother exposes her unborn baby to great danger. This is so because this baby is not spared the damaging effect of the alcohol the mother takes. It may suffer irreparable brain damage. At the time of delivery, therefore, the expectant mother may find herself delivered of a stillborn baby.
Poverty alleviation programmes should be initiated by governments particularly for women in rural areas. Such programmes should include the need to create not only an awareness of good nutrition during pregnancy but also a direct intervention with the supply of a wide variety of nutritious foods.
In many regional and district hospitals, there are antenatal clinics where pregnant women are attended to by qualified public health midwives. These professionals should counsel pregnant women on maternal health care including the dangers of abortion.
Pregnant women who do not avail themselves of the facilities of antenatal clinics put themselves at risk. District assemblies must provide resources for health professionals to visit pregnant women in their villages and homes and educate them on the real signs of labour. In addition, teenage girls and uninformed women should be counseled.
Pregnant women should also be targeted by organizations that fight alcoholism. The damage this addiction can cause is enormous and pregnant women are vulnerable. They must be encouraged to say no to alcohol.
a) In three sentences, one for each, state the causes of maternal mortality
b) In three sentences, one for each, state the measures that must be taken to prevent maternal mortality
a) i) Poor diet is one cause of maternal mortality.
ii) It sometimes results from a lack of professional midwives.
iii) Unsafe abortion also causes maternal mortality.
b) i) Government must implement poverty reduction programmes.
ii) Trained midwives should educate pregnant women on maternal health.
iii) Pregnant women must avoid taking alcohol.
Our land is blessed with many rich mineral resources – gold, diamond, bauxite, manganese and oil. Mining, therefore, contributes immensely to the national income. Communities from where these resources are derived should not be adversely affected by their extraction. Unfortunately, that appears to be the lot of many mining communities in the country which now face poverty, deprivation and squalor as a result of the extraction processes.
The typical scene that confronts any visitor to a mining settlement
is the affluence of the mining executives and the squalor of the communities in which those mineral resources are located. The many years of neglect of the communities by the mining companies has brought about environmental degradation and health hazards for the people. The concerns of the mining communities were recently articulated by the President of the country when he received a delegation from a mining company. He said that he appreciated what they had done so far and appealed to them to do more to enhance the development of the local communities. There is no doubt that mining companies have built clinics and schools, made some donations and provided electricity. As of now, the mining sector has employed some people and contributes about 30% of the national export revenue. That notwithstanding, considering the wealth generated from the extraction of mineral resources, it is quite clear that the mining companies have relegated the welfare of the people to the periphery of their activities.
A recent study has indicated that most of the people affected by mining operations are not satisfied with their compensation packages. Compensation should cover not only the payment of cash but also land allocation for farming activities and financial aid. The message to the mining companies is simple: they should do more than they have done so far. They should initiate programmes which can minimize the environmental hazards caused by their activities and ensure that the people benefit from their operations.
A piece of welcome news would be the establishment of a mining fund devoted to the development of the mining communities. In addition, the mining laws should be critically re-examined. Those that deal with the payment of compensation for land, crops and buildings should protect the interest of the people. For instance, the percentage of mineral revenue paid as royalty should be adjusted upwards.
While attention is being focused on the broad legal framework guiding mining operations, the government should take steps to see that these recommendations are implemented. There should be joint efforts between the players in the mining sector and the government to find lasting solutions to the plight of the mining communities.
a) In two sentences, summarize the benefits derived from the mining industry
b) In one sentence, summarize the negative effect of mining on the environment.
c) In three sentences, summarize how the mining industry can be made more beneficial to the local community and the nation
a) i) It generates revenue for the state.
ii) Mining has created job opportunities.
b) Mining has damaged the environment.
c) i) There should be a development fund for mining areas.
ii) Mining laws should be made more effective.
iii) Government must ensure that mining policies are implemented.
Read the following passage carefully and answer in your own words, as far as possible, the questions that follow.
It is clear that before 1880 the three main agents of the British government, traders, and evangelists – were generally agreed that territorial expansion in Africa was neither desirable nor necessary. It is therefore not surprising that by 1880 Britain’s colonial possessions in Africa were very few. Within the next twenty years, however, all the European nations abandoned their opposition to colonialism and became engaged in a mad rush for colonies in Africa.
The change of attitude towards colonies was the outcome of several factors. The first was the spread of the industrial revolution. Other European nations besides Britain had made rapid progress and were beginning to challenge Britain’s economic leadership. Soon the industrialized nations began to accumulate surplus manufactures because each was unwilling to allow the others’ goods to enter its market without any check. This policy, known as ‘protectionism’, was aimed at assisting domestic industry to grow by controlling the home market for the benefit of local manufactures.
The solution to the problems of surplus manufactures in Europe seemed to lie in the acquisition of markets outside Europe through colonialism. In England, Frederick Lugard launched a campaign in favour of colonies as a solution to the crisis of markets. His ideas appealed to Lord Salisbury, British prime minister from 1885 to 1892. In France, the prime minister, Jules Ferry, urged his countrymen in 1884 to embark upon colonization which he considered to be ‘a necessity like the “market” itself.
Closely linked with the question of markets was the issue of raw materials. British and Belgian industries for example had a great need for cotton and rubber. The former played a key role in the British occupation of Egypt in 1882 and the latter in the adventures of king Leopold II (1835 – 1909) in the Congo (Zaire).
The third factor that played a role in the partition of Africa was the desire to find an outlet for surplus capital. From the middle of the nineteenth century, European capitalists began to look for opportunities to invest their surplus capital in overseas countries. Jules Ferry believed that colonies were ‘for rich countries one of the most lucrative methods of investing capital….’
The search for national glory also played a role in the partition of Africa. The second half of the nineteenth century was the era of European nationalism. It was the period that saw Germany and Italy emerge as nation-states. France having lost Alsace-Lorraine to Germany in 1871, wanted to secure colonies in Africa to compensate for her loss and restore her national honour. Indeed, a French scholar argued in 1882 that France must become an African power or risk becoming a second-rate European power in the next century.
The sense of racial superiority felt by Europeans also made them want to export their culture and civilization to Africa. They used their self-imposed civilizing mission’ as a powerful argument in support of their colonial ambitions. At the Brussels conference of 1876 the Belgian King, Leopold II, stated that his aim in sponsoring the exploration of the Congo (Zaire) was to open to civilization the only part of the globe which had not been penetrated. The signatories to the General Act of the Berlin conference, dated 26 February 1885, piously declared that the motive in colonizing Africa was ‘to protect the natives in their moral and material well-being, to suppress slavery and the slave trade and to ‘further the education of the natives’.
a) State, in one sentence the reason why British colonies in Africa were few before 1880.
b) In five sentences, one for each, state the factors that accounted for Europe’s scramble for colonies in Africa after 1880.
a) The British did not consider colonies necessary.
b) i) Europeans needed markets for their surplus goods.
ii) Colonies were needed to supply raw materials for European factories.
iii) Europeans wanted colonies to invest their surplus capital.
iv) Colonies became a means of boosting the prestige of European nations.
v) Europeans wanted to spread their civilization to foreign lands.